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The Samanids are usually considered the first Iranian Islamic dynasty in Mavarannahr. But they were also largely responsible for the introduction of a Women seeking man for sex Fort Collins Colorado military element into Central Asia.

Beginning in the reign of the caliph al-Mu tasimTurkic slaves brought from Central Asia were used in the guard of the caliph, and soon these slaves, called ghulams, became the nucleus of the army. Turkic slaves were brought to the Islamic lands from the steppes of Central Asia either after being captured in wars with the dafing Turkic neighbors of the caliphate or after being Webcam dating in Tortkol by Muslim slave traders.

Since the Samanid state was the immediate neighbor of the Central Asian steppes, it had full control of the supply of slaves to the other areas of the caliphate and profited from it. The Torttkol expansion of the caliphate in Central Asia had already resumed before the rise of the Samanids.

In the second decade of the 9th century, the troops of the caliph Webcam dating in Tortkol subdued the ruler of Kabul and invaded Wakhan in the east, Webcam dating in Tortkol occupied Otrar and Ferghana in the north.

Further expansion to the north, however, was checked by the Qarluqs. In both directions they had to confront other Turkic groupings. In the west, these were the Oghuz who had long before separated from the eastern branch of the Toquz-Oghuz, the Uyghurs.

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In the south, the Qarluqs fought another strong Turkic tribe called Yaghma, which was predominant in the north-western part of the Tarim basin. In Webcam dating in Tortkol Qarluqs captured Suyab and Talas. In Eastern Turkestan, in the meantime, Chinese fortunes suffered a sudden reversal. In a major uprising in China inflicted a heavy blow to the Tang.

The Uyghurs, who helped the Tang to fight the rebellion and to drive the rebels away from the Tang capital, established their control over the northern part of the Tarim basin. As a result, Soghdian political and economic influence in the Uyghur Qaghanate became stronger than ever before, Apartments for sale in tucson az Soghdian merchants profited greatly due to their role as intermediaries in the trade in silk and horses between the qaghanate and China.

His successors restored Manichaeism to its previous status. In Eastern Turkestan this period coincided with a major offensive of Tibet, where Buddhism became the official religion in The Uyghurs were still able to counterattack, and in they recaptured Qocho.

The struggle for the cities of the Tarim basin between the Tibetans, the Chinese, and the Uyghurs continued until the s. In Tibet made peace with Webcam dating in Tortkol and with the Uyghurs.

But the situation of the Uyghur Qaghanate rapidly deteriorated. The Uyghurs fled from Mongolia and Jungharia in various directions.

With the Uyghur occupation of the Tarim basin and Turfan, China lost all Playboy hotel bangkok thailand positions in Eastern Turkestan for almost ten centuries.

Almost simultaneously, Hotan regained its independence from Tibet inWebcam dating in Tortkol, after a period of internecine wars between various Tibetan generals, by the end of the s the Tibetan Empire disintegrated into a number of petty lordships, never to be restored.

Webcam dating in Tortkol Turkic tribes Yaghma, Chigil, and Tukhsi, which inhabited the area of the Western Tien-Shan and the northwestern part of the Tarim basin, joined the Qarluq tribal union. The Qarakhanids began to threaten the northern borders of the state of the Samanids.

In the Samanid Nuh b. But later, the Samanids instead maintained a defensive policy in their relations with the Turkic steppes. Ahmad Samani and cAmr b. A G Aral Sea L. Asad see map 10his brother, Ahmad, succeeded. After the death of his father inNasr became the head of the dynasty. In his brother Isma il became the governor of Bukhara which had not belonged to the Samanids until thenand in Nasr received a diploma from the caliph granting him the administration of the whole of Mavarannahr.

Rivalry between Nasr and Isma il resulted in a war in which Nasr was taken prisoner Webcam dating in Tortkolbut the struggle ended in a reconciliation. After the death of Nasr inIsma il Webcam dating in Tortkol the ruler of Mavarannahr, with his capital in Bukhara, and received a diploma from the caliph the next year. The Samanids expanded their territory significantly: Layth Saffari. In the west, the Samanids had to frequently fight the Buyids after the latter captured Baghdad in Ahmad campaigned to Shavgar, but probably did not capture it.

Since early in the Samanid rule, the Turkic slave troops, the Webcam dating in Tortkol, played an increasingly important role in the Wwe seattle 2015, at the expense of the levies provided by the local landlords: Turks were considered Webcam dating in Tortkol 53 year old woman looks 25 and they had no local allegiances — their only allegiance was to their master, that is, to the ruler.

However, as a result of the reliance of the Samanid amirs on their Turkic guard, the commanders of this guard soon began to play an independent political role in the Webcam dating in Tortkol, to the detriment of political stability. From the middle of the 10th century the Turkic military took actual control of the government, and their commanders had themselves appointed to key positions, like that of governor of Khorasan.

The power of central government eroded, Dunstable property to rent its revenues dwindled. While the internal situation of the Samanid state was deteriorating, the situation on its northern border also took a turn for the worse. The Turks of the Qarakhanid Qaghanate converted to Islam early in the second half of the 10th century, possibly in This conversion changed the strategic relationship between the Samanids and the Qarakhanids: It is not clear whether the disappearance of the ghazis contributed to the ultimate fall of the Samanids, but, in any case, it made the Qarakhanid conquest easier.

The western expansion of the Qarakhanids began aroundwhen they captured silver mines Webcam dating in Tortkol Ilaq which had belonged to the Samanids, and in they captured Isfijab. Sulayman invaded Mavarannahr and in captured Bukhara, almost without any resistance. However, Bughra Khan soon fell ill in Bukhara, abandoned the city and died Webcam dating in Tortkol the way north.

In he established himself in Ghazna and ruled this region for twenty years, making it his power base hence the name of the dynasty founded by him, the Ghaznavidsnominally on behalf of the Samanids, but actually as independent ruler; from there he raided northern India. After the new Qarakhanid ruler Nasr b. Finally, in the Qarakhanid Nasr b. Ali entered Bukhara without resistance and put an end to the rule of the Samanids. A brother of the last amir, Isma il II b.

Nuh al-Muntasir, tried to fight Ladies seeking real sex Fries Qarakhanids and even had some success, but was finally defeated and killed in Soon after the Qarakhanid Turks, another Turkic group, the Oghuz, established themselves on the northern borders of the Dating sites for mangalore state.

They migrated west after the destruction of the Uyghur Qaghanate, in the last quarter of the 8th century. The Oghuz became a troublesome neighbor to Khorezm and Khorasan, and they often raided these provinces in the second case, across the Qara-qum desert.

To the west, they were fighting the Khazar Qaghanate on the lower Volga, and Webcam dating in Tortkol they attacked the Khazar capital Itil, in alliance with Webcam dating in Tortkol Russian prince Sviatoslav of Kiev. Webcam dating in Tortkol the name Turkmen began to be used primarily for these Muslim Oghuz, and it became their ethnic label. The Oghuz yabghu also converted to Islam a little later see map The relative political equilibrium that existed in the Central Asian steppes in the 10th century was, however, upset with a wave of new nomadic migrations, which started at the eastern limits of the steppe belt see map Ahmadit was during the reign of Nasr II b.

Ahmad that the state experienced its greatest prosperity. The capital of the state was Bukhara, which was the seat of the central administration modelled upon the caliphal court in Baghdad. The Webcam dating in Tortkol of the Samanid family had the title of amir, lit. The amir appointed provincial governors, primarily from among the members of the Samanid family, but also from among other noble families and later from among the Turkic slave soldiers.

The governor had to collect taxes and supply troops for military campaigns, and for his service would retain for himself a certain Webcam dating in Tortkol of the tax revenue from the province sometimes all of it. In a number of provinces the Samanids retained the old dynasties as Webcam dating in Tortkol vassals. While Khorezm was included in the Samanid state afterthe local dynasty of the Khorezmshahs in modern scholarly literature, the Afrighids, from the name of Webcam dating in Tortkol legendary ancestorwith their capital at Kath, continued to rule the southern part of the country, while the Samanid governor amir ruled the northern part, with the capital in Gurganj.

In the amir of Gurganj defeated the Khorezmshah and annexed his domain, assuming the title of Khorezmshah, but remained a Samanid vassal. Chaghaniyan was ruled by the Muhtajids or Al-i Muhtajwho were descendants of either the pre-Islamic rulers, the chaghan-khudas, or of an Iranized Arab family that had settled in Khorasan after the Arab conquest.

Khuttal was ruled by a local dynasty known first as Banijurids and later by the name of its other branch Abu Davudids; the latter expanded their domain and included in it Balkh, Tokharistan and Termez. The province of Guzganan in Arabicized form, JuzjanBlue macaw sale of Webcam dating in Tortkol, was ruled by the Farighunid dynasty. Kuhistan was the domain of the Simjurid family. Even the Saffarids remained for a while in Sistan as Samanid vassals.

In the west, Samanid vassals were the Zaydi Imams in the Caspian provinces. In the north, after the conquest of Isfijab, the Samanids left in place the local Turkic rulers. All these vassals sent only annual presents to the Samanid court, but paid no taxes. The largest province of the Spain girl whatsapp number state was Khorasan, with its center in Nishapur, whose governor was also the commander-in-chief sipahsalar of the Samanid army.

In the s and s Abu Ali Chaghani from the Al-i Muhtaj dynasty was the governor of Khorasan and was close to establishing his independent rule. Later, it was the commanders of Turkic slave troops who held this governorship, often hardly recognizing central authority; in such a commander, Abu Ali Simjuri, appropriated all state revenues from Khorasan. Samanid rule except for its last years was a period of economic prosperity and datong efflorescence.

The old Soghdian language mostly disappeared Webcam dating in Tortkol the end of Samanid rule and was replaced by New Webcam dating in Tortkol. Literature in New Persian using the Arabic scriptwhose beginnings go back to Webcam dating in Tortkol time of the Tahirids and Saffarids, flourished under Samanid patronage.

Persian Webca Webcam dating in Tortkol in the state chancery side by side with Arabicand an attempt under Ahmad II b. Isma il to change back Webcam dating in Tortkol Arabic failed. A Webcam dating in Tortkol translation of the great Arabic historical work by Tabari 10th century was made by Bal ami, a vizier of the Samanids; at the same time a Persian translation of the Arabic commentary on the Qur"an by Tabari was made by a group of several scholars from Mavarannahr.

The court library of the Samanids in Bukhara was famous. Samanid amirs and high officials patronized Persian poetry. Rudaki, who is considered the father of Tajik poetry, wrote at the court of Nasr II, and Firdawsi began his Shahnama under the Samanids. In modern Tajikistan the Samanids are regarded Webcam dating in Tortkol first and only Tajik national dynasty. Ali, who agreed that the Amu-Darya should be the boundary between the two states. Mahmud spent his entire reign in relentless campaigning against the neighbors of his kingdom in all directions.

After securing his Hot sex girl in Hunton Bridge in Khorasan, he extended his control over the former vassals of the Samanids in the south of their kingdom Juzjan, Gharchistan, Khuttal, and Sistan. He sent Wegcam expeditions to conquer the mountainous region of Ghur, in the upper course of the Vating, which had remained pagan and independent until then, and the local chieftains became his vassals.

In the west, Mahmud fought the Buyids, a Shi Webcam dating in Tortkol dynasty who ruled a vast empire in western and central Iran and Iraq and controlled the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. These campaigns 17 in number reached as far south as Kalinjar and Somnath, but only Panjab and Sind were annexed. Mahmud was a despotic ruler whose power rested upon the army and a large bureaucratic apparatus and whose Webcaj was supported by spoils from his Indian campaigns.

The central administrative system in his empire was inherited from the Samanids and further developed under his own rule, so that for later Islamic writers the Ghaznavid state became a model of a well organized and highly centralized bureaucracy, with a professional salaried standing army.

Mahmud and Mas ud also continued the Samanid tradition of patronizing arts and literature Firdawsi presented the Datinng to himand their court in Ghazna was a great cultural center. Here they soon rebelled and were defeated and dispersed in several directions, and some of them migrated as far west as Azerbayjan and Iraq, while the majority went to the Balkhan mountains. Mahmud, shortly before his death intook some of them into Webcam dating in Tortkol service and put them under the command of his son Mas ud, who Free yapchat room 7 the governor of Rayy.

At the same time the Turkmens in Mavarannahr were nomadizing between Bukhara and Khorezm, switching their Webcam dating in Tortkol, accordingly, between the Qarakhanids and datong Khorezmshah. In they participated in the battle at Dabusiya between Webcam dating in Tortkol Altuntash and Ali Tegin, but later they supported the Khorezmshah Harun, son of Altuntash, who ceased to be a Ghaznavid vassal in It seems that many more joined them both from the Balkhan area and from across the Amu-Darya, and they occupied the region of Merv.

During the following years, Khorasan suffered greatly from Turkmen depredations. In the Ghaznavid troops suffered another defeat at Serakhs, and Nishapur was occupied by the Seljuks. The Qarakhanid Qaghanate also underwent important changes by The empire, as was dting in Inner Asian nomadic states, was considered the common patrimony of the ruling clan, and its members were entitled to rule certain parts of it as appanages according to their seniority in the family.

There was a complex system of ranks and titles connected with this seniority thus, immediately below qaghan there was ilig, and below ilig the teginand when the members of the clan moved up the dynastic ladder, their titles and often their appanages changed; this makes the study of their history extremely difficult.

The relationships among various members Webcam dating in Tortkol the Qarakhanid clan were often less than friendly, and interdynastic feuds occurred frequently. One such feud took place in the s, when Ibrahim b. It was in this year,that the united Qarakhanid Qaghanate split into two independent qaghanates, Webcam dating in Tortkol and western, under two different branches of the dynasty.

Attempts at the territorial expansion of the western qaghanate across the Amu-Darya were blocked by the Ghaznavids.

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The khans of the eastern qaghanate, on the other hand, enlarged their territory, spreading Islam into Eastern Turkestan. By the middle of the 11th century the borders of the eastern qaghanate were at Cherchen and Kucha.

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Some of the eastern campaigns of the eastern qaghans were directed against Housewife sex nude incursions of a new wave of heathen nomads which began Tortlol the expansion of the Qitan in Mongolia in the 10th century and continued with chain migrations across the Webcam dating in Tortkol Asian steppe belt in the early 11th century. But first their attention was diverted to the north. Those under the Oghuz yabghu Shah Malik attacked the Webczm Isma il Khandan indefeated him Webcam dating in Tortkol a three-day battle, and conquered Khorezm.

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The Shi ite Buyids were eliminated, and the Webcam dating in Tortkol vigorously promoted Sunni Islam in their possessions. Mas ud, establishing the borders between the two empires; the peace was generally maintained to the end of the century.

Relations between the Seljuks and the western Qarakhanid qaghanate during the s and the s were generally peaceful.

During the first decades of their rule, the Qarakhanids, like the Samanids, left in place some old local dynasties as their tributaries, such as the dihqans of Ilaq, the rulers of Isfijab, and the Muhtajids of Wbecam. But from the second quarter of the 11th century these dynasties were eliminated or their authority reduced.

The first western qaghan, Tamghach Bughra Khan Ibrahim b. Nasrwas described by Muslim historians as a pious and just ruler; he reduced the number Weebcam appanages ruled by princes and introduced a currency reform, and the country enjoyed economic prosperity. Ibrahim b. Nasr, in addition to his title of qaghan, adopted also the title of sultan. In he conquered Ferghana, which had been a bone of contention between Webcam dating in Tortkol western and the eastern qaghanates; How to date a gemini on Ferghana, together with Shash, Taraz and Balasaghun, Webcam dating in Tortkol hands between the two qaghanates.

The capital of the eastern qaghanate was most often Kashghar, but sometimes Balasaghun. At about the same time, the Seljuks tried to impose their suzerainty on the Qarakhanids. But Alp-Arslan had to pay more attention to his eastern borders. In he undertook an expedition from Merv to Khorezm.

Before returning to Khorasan, he appointed in Khorezm Matt passmore dating natalia own Webcam dating in Tortkol named Arslan-Arghun a son or Webczm of the sultan.

In Alp-Arslan set out for the conquest of Mavarannahr, and his army was already crossing the Amu-Darya when the sultan was killed by the commander of a fortress who had TTortkol taken prisoner. After this the Qarakhanids remained vassals of the Seljuks for half a century. Malik Shah appointed his slave Anushtegin Gharcha, keeper of the royal wash bowls, as titular governor of Khorezm because the expenses of this part of the royal household were covered by the revenues of Khorezmbut he did not Webcam dating in Tortkol rule this province.

Qochqar, as governor of Khorezm with the title of Khorezmshah; he was killed in the same year, and his son Qutb ad-Din Muhammad received the post and Webcam dating in Tortkol title of his father; he became the founder of the new dynasty of the Khorezmshahs.

Under the Qarakhanids and the Seljuks the process of the Turkicization of Central Asia appears to have advanced considerably, although it is impossible to evaluate this process on the basis of available sources.

At the same Webcam dating in Tortkol the population of Western Turkestan Webcma still predominantly Iranian, with the possible exception of Shash. The number of Turkic tribesmen who moved into Western Turkestan with the Qarakhanid conquest is not known, they Webcam dating in Tortkol not seem to have sedentarized there, and Cebu girls looking men language of high Torkol in the western qaghanate was Persian.

After the Seljuk conquest a Turkic tribal population was found throughout the domains of the Great Seljuks, but its main concentration was in the west of the Seljuk empire, not in Central Asia; and the language of high culture under the Seljuks was only Persian. Cheleken I. His reign, which lasted twelve years untilwas a time of internal feuds and warfare.

Arslan-Arghun, who had been appointed governor of Khorezm by Alp-Arslan but under Malik Shah held another post, rebelled and was defeated with some difficulty. Webcam dating in Tortkol, Berk-Yaruq had to fight his brother Muhammad Tapar for supreme authority. After the death of Berk-Yaruq, Muhammad became the sultan; he ruled the western daating Webcam dating in Tortkol the empire, while his half-brother Ahmad Sanjar, based first in Balkh and later in Merv, ruled Khorasan and other provinces in the east as a viceroy with Webcam dating in Tortkol title malik.

Webca, interfered several Tottkol in the affairs of the Qarakhanids, primarily of the Western Qaghanate, which remained a Seljuk vassal; datihg even the Eastern Qarakhanids recognized his overlordship.

In he placed on the throne in Samarqand Arslan Khan Mahmud, who was his nephew. Sanjar also interfered in a succession dispute among the Ghaznavids: Free masturbation sex stories were the successors of the Qitan, a people of Mongolic origin, who had conquered Mongolia and Webcqm part of northern China in and established a dynasty Tortko under the Chinese name Liao. After most of their domains were conquered in by another nomadic people, of Manchu origin, which established a new Chinese dynasty named Jin, a part of the Qitan, under a member of the Liao royal house, began their westward migration and conquests in They quickly grew in number after they were joined by other groups, including some Mongol, Turkic, and even Jurchen elements.

In about one group of the Qara-Khitays moved into the territory of the Eastern Qarakhanids, but they were defeated by Arslan Khan Ahmad b. In the following years the Western Qarakhanid qaghanate was weakened because of a conflict between Mahmud Khan and his nomadic Qarluq subjects; the Wdbcam rebelled against the khan and asked the Qara-Khitays for help.

Even before this, possibly after the battle at Khojend, the Qarakhanid rulers of Uzgend Ferghana separated from the Western Qarakhanids and established their own independent line of hereditary rulers.

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The lands under Qara-Khitay control Webcam dating in Tortkol stretched from Khorezm in the west to the Altay and Hami in the east Webcam dating in Tortkol from Lake Balkhash datig the north to the Amu-Darya in the south, but their core territory was in the Chu kn and around their capital, Balasaghun. The Qara-Khitays Funny swinger quotes only partly sinicized. They were probably Buddhist, but they showed tolerance toward other religions, and the Nestorian Christian church was very active in their dominions.

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It appears that some Oghuz tribes had already migrated to this province at the time of the Seljuk conquests in the s, while others came from Mavarannahr after the Qara-Khitay invasion. They were subjected to increasing taxation by the governor of Balkh, and their growing discontent and unrest resulted in an open rebellion in Sanjar moved against them with a punitive Tortlol, but his army was utterly defeated and the sultan himself was captured by the Oghuz, who kept him prisoner under close watch according to some accounts, he was kept in an iron cage at night for three years, carrying him around during their raids.

The same year Sanjar managed to escape from captivity and returned to Merv, but in he died without being able to restore his authority and order in Khorasan. With his death, Seljuk rule in eastern Iran came to an end. Of the history of the Eastern Qaghanate during this Webcam dating in Tortkol very little is known.

As to the Western Qaghanate, it was plagued by wars with the rebellious Qarluq nomads in the Zerafshan valley; in the course of these wars the qaghans won some major battles, of which, however, none was decisive. Bukhara was ruled, from the first years of the 12th century, by the Burhanids, a dynasty of religious dignitaries with the title of sadr, installed there by Sultan Sanjar; they were the immediate vassals of the Seljuks, not of the Qarakhanids.

The much-weakened Western Qaghanate could not withstand the pressure of two new Webcam dating in Tortkol powers, the Ghurids from Webcam dating in Tortkol south and the Khorezmshahs from the west. The rulers Escort in london Ghur about whom see also map 17who belonged to the Shansabanid family, rose in the first half of the 12th century from the chieftains of a small mountain principality on the upper Harirud, and the main branch of the family built its stronghold at Firuzkuh.

In they became vassals of the Seljuks, with the title of malik, but they began their own expansion, which was primarily directed against the Ghaznavids. The Ghurid troops consisted of Ghurid mountaineers, who fought as infantry, and Turkic ghulams, who formed the cavalry. In he stopped paying tribute to Sanjar, but then he was defeated near Herat by the Seljuk army and spent some time in captivity.

The simultaneous decline of the Ghaznavids and the anarchy in Khorasan after the Webcam dating in Tortkol of Sanjar by the Oghuz in Webcm the Ghurids much freedom of action.

The Tortkkol split into three branches: The Ghazna branch took over the Ghaznavid possessions in India and continued Webcam dating in Tortkol expansionist policy of their predecessors. The Tortkoo branch ruled over Tokharistan, Badakhshan, and Webcam dating in Tortkol, up to the bank of the Amu-Darya according to some information, also Chaghaniyan and Wakhsh on the right bank of the river.

The main branch, in Firuzkuh, assisted by the Bamiyan branch, took up westward expansion, in Khorasan. Webcam dating in Tortkol took advantage first of the internal Tortko, in the Khorezmshah dynasty and later of the enmity between the Khorezmshahs and the caliphs in Baghdad see belowand by occupied the whole of Khorasan, up to Damghan in the west.

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But soon after that they were decisively defeated by the Khorezmshah Muhammad. He defeated the Qarakhanids and their Qara-Khitay overlords and compelled them to allow the Qarluqs to return to their grazing grounds in the Zerafshan valley. But then he had to deal with the situation in Khorasan after the death of Sultan Sanjar. In the s Khorasan was in a state of anarchy: In the following years Il-Arslan interfered again in the relations between the Qarakhanids and the Qarluqs Webcam dating in Tortkol the side of the latter, but in his troops Wdbcam defeated by the Qara-Khitays, and in Il-Arslan Webcam dating in Tortkol.

At the time of his death his eldest son Tekesh was the governor of Jend, and his younger brother Sultan Shah was proclaimed Khorezmshah. Tekesh was Webcam dating in Tortkol on the throne with the help of the Qara-Khitay army.

Sultan Shah first found refuge at the Ghurid court in Firuzkuh, but then was able, Webcam dating in Tortkol Qara-Khitay help, to take possession of a large part of Khorasan, including Nishapur, Nesa, Serakhs from which he expelled the Oghuz inand Merv. Daying conquered Nishapur after two campaigns, in and ; Sultan Shah had to make peace with Tekesh, but he still coveted the throne of the Khorezmshahs and tried to obtain help from the Ghurids.

When no help was Thick booty red bone, he turned against the Ghurids, who inn him at Merv in and took much of his possessions. Although Tekesh owed his throne to the Qara-Khitays, he soon threw off Webca overlordship and ceased paying the annual tribute; when the Qara-Khitays tried to invade Khorezm, he stopped their troops by opening the dikes of Khorezm and flooding the land in their path.

In Khorezmian troops invaded Mavarannahr and captured Bukhara but did not remain. Tekesh greatly enlarged his possessions in the west, at the expense of the Seljuk Sultanate.

As a result, Tekesh became the master of most of western Iran. These troops terrorized western Iran and earned the general hatred Webcam dating in Tortkol the local population, and when Tekesh died, the people of Webcam dating in Tortkol rose and massacred all the Khorezmians Webcam dating in Tortkol could.

When the Ghurids took over all of Khorasan after the death of Khorezmshah Tekesh, they caused the resentment in the local population by their financial levies and confiscations of grain, and the new Khorezmshah, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, was able to restore his possessions.

In the Khorezmshah Muhammad besieged Herat, but had to retreat before the Ghurid army. Later the same year Muhammad captured Nishapur and inafter the death of the Ghurid sultan Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad, he conquered Merv.

In he Webcam dating in Tortkol Herat again, Hot housewives want sex Halton Hills was repulsed Todtkol the Ghurid sultan Shihab ad-Din Muhammad, who pursued the Khorezmian army into Khorezm.

The Khorezmians opened the dikes on the canals and flooded the countryside; but after the water receded, the Ghurid army defeated the Khorezmshah near his Trtkol, Gurganj, and besieged the city. The Khorezmshah turned for help to his Qara-Khitay suzerains, who came to his aid accompanied by the troops of their Qarakhanid vassals from Samarqand and Otrar.

Shihab ad-Din was defeated, and the Qara-Khitays pursued him to Andkhud, where he was defeated again and besieged. A truce signed due to the efforts of Sultan Uthman, the Qarakhanid ruler of Samarqand, allowed Shihab ad-Din to escape, but early in he was assassinated, and soon thereafter the Webcam dating in Tortkol lost all of Khorasan, except Herat. During the following several years the expansionist Speed dating strategies of the Khorezmshah Muhammad was directed mainly eastward.

After this the Khorezmshah Muhammad agreed with Sultan Uthman of Samarqand on a joint campaign against the Qara-Khitays; the campaign ended in defeat, and the Khorezmshah returned to Khorezm, while Uthman pledged his allegiance to the Qara-Khitays.

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This led to an attack on Samarqand by the Qara-Khitays; they had to leave the city, however, after having collected a small tribute, because the Qara-Khitay state was now threatened from the east. At that time the threat from the rising Mongol Empire also began to be felt in Central Asia. The Khorezmshah Muhammad took advantage of the difficulties experienced by the Qara-Khitays and began an open war with.

But this caused resentment among the population of Samarqand, and the Khorezmshah had Webcam dating in Tortkol send Uthman back to Samarqand earlier. Upon his return, inUthman learned about the excesses committed in the city by the representatives of the Khorezmshah, and in he ordered a general massacre of all Khorezmians who were in the city.

The Khorezmshah Muhammad immediately marched on Samarqand, which was soon forced to surrender; the city was sacked for three days, during which some 10, men were killed, and Uthman was executed. Samarqand became Webcam dating in Tortkol actual capital of the Khorezmshah, who built a new cathedral mosque and probably also a palace there, while Khorezm was left under the authority of Terken Khatun.

After that Muhammad felt secure enough to turn his attention toward his other neighbors. The Khorezmshah attacked the Mongols, despite their unwillingness to Webcam dating in Tortkol battle; the fight was indecisive, and at night the Mongols quickly left.

It was said that the bravery of the Mongols Webcam dating in Tortkol a strong impression on the Khorezmshah, and that this was one Webcam dating in Tortkol the reasons Webcam dating in Tortkol he avoided meeting them later in the open field.

By Muhammad took possession of most of western Iran and Azerbayjan. Also by that time his enmity with the Abbasid caliph an-Nasir became an open Webcam dating in Tortkol.

Muhammad demanded that the caliph should recognize his authority in Baghdad, as had been the practice under the Great Seljuks, so that the caliph should retain only his spiritual authority. This claim was flatly rejected by the caliph, after which Muhammad had the Muslim clerics ulama of Khorezm issue a ruling that the caliph was unworthy of his office and should be deposed; in accordance with this ruling, the Khorezmshah declared the caliph an-Nasir deposed and proclaimed as caliph the Sayyid Ala al-Mulk Termezi.

In late fall of he sent troops against Baghdad from Hamadan, but they suffered heavy losses from severe snowstorms and the attacks of the Kurds in the mountains of Kurdistan, and only a small portion of them returned to Muhammad.

By he had already subjugated the Tanguts, who lived in the Ordos region, and Webcam dating in Tortkol the Mongols invaded northern China. In they captured Beijing, and inwith most of Northern China in their hands, Chingis Khan returned to Mongolia. The governor of Otrar, named Inalchik, had all the or so merchants of the caravan slaughtered and their goods confiscated, accusing them of being spies the massacre seems to have been sanctioned by the Khorezmshah.

An ambassador Webcam dating in Tortkol Chingis Khan came to the Khorezmshah soon after this, demanding the extradition of Inalchik, but he was also killed. After this war became inevitable. Following the raid by Jebe, Chingis Khan set out with his main army in the summer of Webcam dating in Tortkol The Khorezmshah knew about the approaching enemy, but decided not to meet them in the open field and, instead, divided his troops as garrisons among several key cities, while he himself waited on the left Webcam dating in Tortkol of the Amu-Darya for the results of the battles.

It is possible that he had no other choice, given the hostility of some of his military commanders and the unreliability of his troops. In the fall of Chingis Khan came to Otrar. Here he divided his army: Nur surrendered to the Mongol advance-guard under Webcam dating in Tortkol Bahadur without resistance. Chingis Khan approached Bukhara in February Three days after Webcam dating in Tortkol beginning of the siege, the garrison under Inanch Khan left the city and broke through the Mongol troops, but only a few of them could escape the pursuing Mongols Webcam dating in Tortkol cross the Amu-Darya.

The city, abandoned by the garrison, surrendered, but the citadel, defended by just soldiers, resisted for 12 days. The inhabitants of Bukhara were driven out of the city and divided among the Mongol troops as slaves, and the city was sacked and then burnt.

From Bukhara the Mongols marched on Samarqand, moving along both banks of the Zerafshan and driving Webcam dating in Tortkol them a large number of people captured in Bukhara Webcam dating in Tortkol the villages along the way, whom the Mongols used for the siege works and as human shields.

Chingis Khan came to Samarqand in March. The detachment sent against Benaket, after capturing the city and massacring its garrison, returned to Samarqand. He had to land near Jend and was finally able to reach Gurganj, having lost all his men. The Khorezmshah, Massage monroe wi during the siege White male for horny single mom black girl Samarqand waited between Kelif and Andkhud without taking any action, fled to Nishapur before the arrival of the Mongols.

From Nishapur he continued his flight, going to various places in western Iran in order to put the Mongols off his track, and finally came, with a small retinue and his elder son Jalal ad-Din, to an island off the south-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; here he died from pneumonia in December Jalal ad-Din, who came to Gurganj after the death of the Khorezmshah, encountered hostility among the Webcam dating in Tortkol amirs and left for Khorasan, together with Timur Malik.

The city offered stubborn resistance and Louisa KY sexy woman conquered after a siege that lasted four or five months; after the Mongols stormed the walls, they had to fight the defenders from house to house. The surviving inhabitants were taken out of the city; the artisans, young women, and children were separated and taken into captivity, and the rest were slaughtered.

After this the Mongols destroyed the dam on the AmuDarya, and what was left of the city was flooded, so Webcam dating in Tortkol Gurganj was destroyed completely. Jalal ad-Din, in the meantime, came to Ghazna, the capital of his appanage. Chingis Khan had already crossed the Amu-Darya and occupied Balkh; the city was destroyed and the inhabitants slaughtered. Next, Chingis Khan captured, after a long siege, Taleqan in Guzganwhich was also destroyed. A Mongol detachment was sent against Jalal ad-Din, who encountered it near Pervan.

The Mongols were completely crushed; this was the only significant victory for the Muslims in this war, but Jalal ad-Din was unable to use it to his advantage because of the discord between his Ghurid and Turkic military commanders.

Chingis Khan set off from Taleqan against Jalal ad-Din, and on his way captured Bamiyan, whose entire population was slaughtered because a grandson of Chingis Khan was Webcam dating in Tortkol during its siege. He then occupied Ghazna where a general slaughter of the population also followed and the city was burntand in November attacked Jalal ad-Din on the northern bank of the Indus.

Jalal ad-Din was defeated and could escape, with some 4, of his troops, only by swimming across the river; Chingis Khan Ladies looking real sex Mentone Texas 79754 a detachment in pursuit, but it turned back because of the heat. In earlywhile Chingis Khan was at Taleqan, Webcam dating in Tortkol dispatched his youngest son, Toluy, to occupy the cities of Khorasan. Toluy accomplished his task in less than three months by capturing Merv, Nishapur, and Herat, as well as other, smaller cities.

Nishapur was razed to the ground, the site of the city was plowed, and the entire population was massacred in revenge for the death of Taghachar at the city wall in November The population of Merv was also slaughtered, but not at once; after the remaining inhabitants, under one of the military commanders of Jalal ad-Din, rebelled in the fall ofthe city was finally destroyed a year later.

During and the first part of individual Mongol commanders were still capturing and destroying mountain fortresses north of the Hindukush, but Chingis Khan himself, in the spring ofalready had set out for the return to Mongolia, where he arrived only in Ay a uhammad ah M zmsh Khore 9?

Their appanages were known by the term ulus, which referred to their nomadic subjects, but later this term was associated with the territory as. An appanage was limited, at least initially, to the pasture lands; the sedentary regions were under the joint authority of the ruling clan. The initial distribution of the main uluses was Send and receive sms online free philippines by Chingis Khan.

The sedentary regions had a separate administration which was responsible mainly for tax collection and other financial matters ; in Central Asia it was headed by a local Muslim merchant, Mahmud Yalavach Khorezmi, and after his transfer to China for a similar job, by his son Mas ud Bek. This quriltay symbolized the actual end of the imperial authority of the qa"an, who, moreover, having already transferred his capital from Mongolia to China, became in effect one of the regional khans.

Soon after this quriltay Baraq crossed the Amu-Darya and invaded the Ilkhanid ulus, but his army was crushed by the Ilkhan Abaqa in a battle at Herat in ; soon after this Baraq died, and his army was incorporated into that of Qaydu. In Qaydu was proclaimed khan in Talas; he also appointed the head of the Chaghatay ulus, who became subordinate to. He still had to fight the Webcam dating in Tortkol of Baraq and Alghu, who Webcam dating in Tortkol plundered Bukhara and other cities of Mavarannahr.

A Webcam dating in Tortkol between them and Qaydu was achieved inwhen Qaydu appointed Du"a, a son of Baraq, as head of the Chaghatay ulus; from then on Du"a closely cooperated with Qaydu until the end of his rule. In the subsequent wars with Qubilay, Qaydu substantially enlarged his ulus to the east, occupying all of Eastern Turkestan and reaching as far as central Mongolia.

The civil administration in the ulus of Qaydu had been, sincein the hands of Mas ud Bek, who was succeeded by his sons; he introduced an important monetary reform that helped to revive the economy and urban life.

The second major ulus that occupied a large part of Central Asia, together with Western Siberia, was that of Jochi. Under his second son Batu it expanded to the west, as Batu conquered most of the Russian principalities and the Northern Webcam dating in Tortkol, and briefly invaded Central Europe.

The ulus of Jochi was divided into two wings, the eastern otherwise the left wing, in accordance with the chief Mongol orientation to the south and the western the right one. The first head of the right wing was Batu, and he and his descendants were at the same time the heads of the entire ulus.

The descendants Webcam dating in Tortkol Orda, who ruled the eastern part of the ulus of Jochi, had a subordinate New anonymous dating app but often only theoretically in relation to the descendants of Batu. The ulus of Orda was, in turn, Webcam dating in Tortkol into left and right wings: In Turkic, the names of these uluses were used with color descriptors: The relations between the Ilkhanids and the ulus of Chaghatay and later Qaydu were often hostile, especially in the ss, during the wars Alone afar looking for Jonesboro Arkansas Ilkhan Abaqa and Baraq and after Abaqa pillaged Bukhara in I Qocho L.

In the two uluses that were formed on the territory of the Eurasian steppe belt west Webcam dating in Tortkol Mongolia, those of Jochi and Chaghatay and QayduMongols formed only a small, privileged minority, while the great majority of their nomadic population was Turkic, as before the conquest. Some Turkic groups retained their previous identity, while others were reduced in number and broken up, being completely or partially distributed among the Mongol commanders and assuming the tribal names of these commanders.

Although the Mongol tribes after the conquest seemingly appear Ladies seeking casual sex gu win in these two uluses, the Mongols were actually absorbed by the Turkic majority. By the early 14th century the uluses of Jochi and Chaghatay were Turkicized.

Parallel to this process, but independent of it, was the Webcam dating in Tortkol of Islamization, which, as it is generally believed, usually began with the conversion of individual rulers, mostly followed by the conversion of their subjects. The Ilkhans were converted to Islam a little earlier, under Ghazan Khan Among the Chaghatayids the first to adopt Islam were Mubarak Shah and Baraqbut their successors were again pagan, until the conversion of the khan Tarmashirinand Islamization encountered more resistance among the nomads of this ulus and took longer.

But generally the interests of the rulers of the Golden Horde lay in the west and the south, not in Central Asia. During this period, inKhorezm seceded from the ulus of Webcam dating in Tortkol under rulers from the Turkicized Mongol tribe Qongrat, who bore the title, or nick-name, Sufi, and who resided in Urgench built in the 13th century near the site of the pre-Mongol Gurganj. In the first ruler of this dynasty, Husayn Sufi, annexed the southern part of Khorezm, with the cities of Kat and Khiva, which had belonged to the ulus of Chaghatay since the second half of the 13th century.

The ulus of Qaydu underwent an important transformation during the first years of the 14th century: Kebek was the first Mongol khan who started minting silver coins with the name of the khan on them; they became known as kebeki dinars.

It was probably under Kebek that an administrative reform was introduced in the Chaghatay ulus: Kebek was succeeded by Tarmashirin, a son of Du"a, who converted to Islam.

Toghluq-Timur converted to Islam, and his successors were Muslims, but their nomadic subjects were recognized as Muslims by their western neighbors only a century later. The end of Chaghatayid rule in Mavarannahr coincided with the end of Ilkhanid rule in Iran. The last Ilkhan, Abu Sa Who can i fuck by Bellevue Washington ks, who Webcam dating in Tortkol inleft no offspring; for two decades the tribal amirs who dominated various regions of Iran and Iraq placed on the throne a series of Chingisids who did not have any real authority, until the last of such puppet khans was killed in The Ilkhanid ulus was replaced by local dynasties in Iran and Iraq, some of Persian, others of Mongol or Turkic, origin.

The Iranian dynasty of the Karts, whose center was Webcam dating in Tortkol and which traced its origin to the Ghurids, had been a vassal of the Ilkhans, and after the demise of the latter established an independent state that competed with the Qara"unas amirs in the east and the Sarbadar state in the west.

The Sarbadar movement began in the district of Sebzevar in as an uprising against the heavy burden of taxes; the Sarbadars included disparate elements, among whom radical Shi ite sheykhs became especially influential. Only under glasnost openness did the downside become clear. In some areas of the Kazakh steppe, soil has become degraded or is so over-fertilised that Webcam dating in Tortkol rivers and lands are seriously polluted.

By some measures, the problems of erosion, aridity and salinity are on a larger scale than those associated with the Aral Sea p One UN report Bbw online dating that the country has lost 1. As the Kashagan underwater oilfield is being prepared for exploitation, and other fields around the Caspian are already being pumped, the environmental future of the world's largest lake hangs in the balance.

An estimated sq km of land has been contaminated by oil accidents, spills and leak, and flaring-off of unwanted gas has Webcam dating in Tortkol air pollution and health problems in the area of the Tenghiz oilfield. Signs of trouble are also visible among the sea's species of fish, including the famous beluga white sturgeon, source Webcam dating in Tortkol the world's best caviar. A beluga can grow 6m in length and the kg of caviar that it might yield can sell for a quarter of a million dollars.

Ecotourism is still finding its feet in Kazakhstan, but, with the country's great wealth of varied natural attractions, it surely has a bright future. The helpful, English-speaking EIRC is the focal point for community-based ecotourism in Kazakhstan, providing travellers with information, bookings and organisational help for visiting half-a-dozen ecotourism programmes around the country.

These programmes, situated in some of the country's most attractive natural areas, offer welcoming homestays with local families, guided hikes, treks and horse rides, and a variety of other activities from bird- animal- and plant-spotting to concerts of traditional Kazakh music and even fcumys-making sessions.

At some sites you can spend your nights in yurts. You'll typically spend about the same again on guides, park fees, horses, vehicle transfers and other expenses. Top sites:. Aksu-Dzhabagly Nature Reserve p Beautiful mountain country at the northwest extremity of the Tian Shan, with high biodiversity. Lepsinsk pi39 Quaint village at the foot of Zhungar Alatau mountains: Korgalzhyn Nature Reserve p Steppe lakes and exciting bird-watching; the world's most northerly flamingo habitat.

Kokshetau pi66 Village life, walks and rides amid unspoiled northern countryside with lakes, woodlands and rocky hills. Some sites including Lepsinsk are in border zones which require a special permit that can take a month or more to. Plan ahead! Caviar yields for Kazakh fishing boats have dwindled to almost.

There's also concern for the endemic Caspian seal: The food culture of Kazakhstan is one of the strongest Webcam dating in Tortkol of Webcam dating in Tortkol Kazakhs' nomadic roots. Nomads eat the food most readily available, and in most cases this meant horses and sheep. Across the country you'll also find ubiquitous Central Asian dishes such as shashlyk, laghman noodlesmanty steamed dumplings and plov Central Asian pilaf of rice and mixed vegetables.

In the main Webcam dating in Tortkol and northern Kazakhstan, Russian cuisine is prevalent, reflecting the tastes of the immigrant culture - and today is supplemented by an international range Webcam dating in Tortkol restaurants ranging from Italian and Tex-Mex to Chinese and Korean.

The Kazakh national dish is besbarmak, chunks of Webcam dating in Tortkol beef, mutton or perhaps horse meat and onions, served in a huge bowl atop flat squares of pasta. The broth from the meat is drunk separately. In bazaars and a few restaurants, it Webcam dating in Tortkol likely that you'll come across kazy a smoked horse-meat sausage, though beef is sometimes substituted ; when served on special occasions sliced with cold noodles it is called naryn.

Karta literally 'horse intestines', which is used as the casing and chuchuk are two other Webcam dating in Tortkol of horse-meat sausage. Kuurdak is a fatty stew of meat, offal including lungs and heart and potato, boiled in a pot for two to three hours. Kazakhs make a sweet plov with dried apricots, raisins and prunes, while plov askabak is made with pumpkin.

Zhuta is pasta shaped like a Swiss roll with a carrot and pumpkin filling. A local snack is baursaki, fried dough balls or triangles, not unlike heavy doughnuts. Kazakh apples are also famous in Central Asia Almaty and its old name, Alma-Ata, literally mean 'father of apples'. As in Kyrgyzstan, kumys fermented mare's milk is popular.

On the steppes and in the desert regions, you'll even come across shubat fermented camel's milk which has a somewhat less salty taste. If main dishes cost between T and T, a full meal with a salad, bread, garnish, dessert, a couple of drinks and service charge can easily add up to T.

One way Webcam dating in Tortkol eat economically is to go for the "business lunch' biznes lanch, kompleksny obed offered by many city restaurants.

This is a good-value set meal, typically comprising soup or salad, a main course, a dessert and a drink. Kazakhstan's economic prosperity is most palpable here in its biggest city, where at times you could almost believe you are in Europe, such are the numbers of glitzy international shops lining the streets and of Mercedes, Audis, Volkswagens and BMWs negotiating the peak-hour jams.

This leafy city with a backdrop of the snow-capped Zailiysky Alatau a spur of the Tian Shan has always been one of the most charming Russian creations in Central Asia. Today Almatys fast-growing middle class also have expensive suburban housing, well-stocked hour supermarkets, Western-style coffee lounges, Webcam dating in Tortkol restaurants, chic bars, Webcam dating in Tortkol nightclubs and even new ski resorts to help them enjoy life to the.

The Webcam dating in Tortkol Kazakh presence is gradually getting stronger in what was always a heavily Russian-influenced city, but everyone seems to rub along fine. No-one even seems Escorts rochester ny bothered that Astana has replaced Almaty as Kazakhstan's capital - except those who have had to move to Astana.

Almaty is Kazakhstan's main transport hub and a Webcam dating in Tortkol many travellers pass through rather than linger, but if you do stay a few days youH find - as several thousand Western expats have - that Almaty is a place Webcam dating in Tortkol enjoying many green parks and colourfully illuminated fountains, for Webcam dating in Tortkol excellent museums, theatres, shops and markets, and for eating, drinking and dancing in Central Webcam dating in Tortkol best selection of restaurants, bars and clubs.

It's also a starting point for great hikes, drives, treks and skiing in the Zailiysky Alatau between here and Kyrgyzstan the border is just 25km south and it's the obvious jump-off point for the magnificent central Tian Shan in Kazakhstan's far southeastern corner. The best times to visit Almaty are mid-April to late May, and mid-August to mid-October, when it's neither too cold nor too hot.

Almaty was founded inwhen the Kazakhs were still nomads, as a Russian frontier fort named Verny on the site of the Silk Road oasis Almatu which had been laid waste by the Mongols. Cossacks and Siberian peasants settled around it, but the town was twice almost flattened by earthquakes, in and In the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was a place of exile, its best-known outcast being Leon Trotsky.

Webcam dating in Tortkol numbers of ethnic Koreans, forcibly resettled from the Russian Far East, arrived at the same time. In the s and early '80s Kazakhstan's leader Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the only Central Asian member of the Soviet Politburo, managed to steer lots of money southeast.

Central State Museum All Kazakhstan's history under one roof pi Chimbulak Fresh powder snow a minute drive from your door pi Moscow to transform Alma-Ata from a provincial town into a worthy capital of a Soviet republic. Hence the number of buildings in relatively adventurous late-Soviet styles such as the Arasan Baths and Hotel Kazakhstan, and the stately piles such as the Academy of Sciences and the old Webcam dating in Tortkol, now the Kazakh-British Technical University.

Almaty saw the first unrest unleashed in Central Asia by the Gorbachev Webcam dating in Tortkol of glas-nost. Thousands took to the streets in December Webcam dating in Tortkol protest against Kunaev's replacement as head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan by the Russian Gennady Kolbin. A counterdemo of workers armed with metal bars turned the protest into riots. Almaty lost its status as Kazakhstan's capital in but remains the country1 s commercial, social and cultural hub.

In an ongoing property boom, ever more office towers, apartment blocks and shopping centres are pushing skyward, especially in the south of the city. The tarnished side of this shiny middle-class coin is represented by the Webcam dating in Tortkol settlements of rural migrants and Kazakh returnees on the city's outskirts. Some find Almaty's long, straight streets easy to navigate once you get to know the key north-south and east-west arteries; others find a lack of landmarks confusing.

Keep in mind that the mountains are to the south, and the city slopes upward from north m to south m. Posted street names are generally Kazakh spellings but local people are often Webcam dating in Tortkol familiar with the old Soviet names, Escort independent los angeles you'll find the most important of these given in brackets on the Almaty map.

The airport is 13km north of the centre and the Sayran long-distance bus station is 5km west. The main train station, Almaty-II, and the Sayakhat regional bus station are on the northern edge of the central area.

An unpredictable selection of city maps in English and Russian is available for a few hundred tenge each at hotels and the Akademkitap bookshops right.

For topographical maps of parts of Kazakhstan, head to GEO. Akademkitap has some Almaty-area hiking maps. Hotel Otrar g 68 48; Gogol 73 The newsstand here has a good map selection. Intercontinental Almaty g 50 00; Zheltoqsan Has a reasonably well-stocked bookshop.

British Council g 66 48, www. Goethe Institute g 27 04, www. Internet cafes generally offer much better prices than hotel business Webcam dating in Tortkol. Also copies CDs, sends faxes and makes photocopies. Many hotels will do your laundry but it will take at least 24 hours.

Normal service is 24 hours. International SOS ; www. Also does remote-area medical assistance. There are exchange kiosks on all main streets. Avoid kiosks in other very public places, such as the Zelyony Bazar Green Marketto minimise the risk of theft. An ATM is never too far away: All shopping malls, the TsUM department store, most banks and some supermarkets and smaller shops have.

To change travellers cheques look for branches of Kazkommertsbank or Halyk Bank there are many all over the city. Global Air g 50 59; www. Kazkommertzbank g 51 23; Bayseyitova 49; www. Located between Bogenbay Batyr and Karasay Batyr.

Card payphones are located all over the city. See pl80 for how to operate. The Panfilov branch has fax and photocopying too, and there's cheap internet at the Webcam dating in Tortkol Zholy branch. There are a number of general travel agencies useful for air and train tickets, hotel bookings, visa support, day and two-day outings to places of interest within reach of Almaty, and longer tours.

Webcam dating in Tortkol g 49 49; www. Excursions to Uzbekistan offered. Has other offices in Astana and Aktau. Staff speak several European languages. Services include ticketing for trains and all airlines flying in and from Kazakhstan, visa arrangements including for other Central Asian countriestours and accommodation. Day trips from Almaty cost around 35,T to 40,T for up to seven people. Jibek Joly g ; www. StantOUK g 70 72,; www. Also provides air and train tickets, and can book accommodation.

Prices are reasonable. Contact Stantours by email Webcam dating in Tortkol stantours. Turan-Asia g Asian massage rochester 21; www. The following agencies specialise in mountaineering, trekking and active Adult singles dating in stauntonillinois il, but can usually also organise visa support and accommodation:.

Also offers horse treks, mountain biking, sport fishing, bird-watching and botanical tours. Most trips last between one and three weeks.

Academy Fitbit Flex

Small groups, including solo travellers, can be catered. Tour Asia g 25 73; daing. Located 6km south from the centre. Her trips are spirited, not too expensive, and a good way to meet locals and expats.

Kariygash has no office: Almaty is a pretty safe town, but you should still exercise the usual precautions see p The commonest emergencies for Westerners here concern late-night activities - people robbed in taxis after Webcam dating in Tortkol inebriated from bars and nightclubs, Tirtkol passports and money stolen Filipina cam shows prostitutes.

Though police harassment is less common these days, it can still happen. It's best not to carry much cash around, and you certainly wouldn't want to let Tlrtkol wallet into police hands. If you are stopped on the street, show only a photocopy Webcam dating in Tortkol your passport and visa preferably Wencam certified by your embassy or consulate; see pl Writing down a name and Tortiol number helps keep police honest and may unmask impostors.

One thing you do have to be wary of is the 'Wallet Full of Dollars' scam. Someone finds a wallet lying on the ground as you pass, opens it and finds hundreds of dollars inside.

They draw your attention to Mid cities odessa tx and if you stop, it becomes clear there's nothing in the wallet to identify its owner.

The person offers to share the loot Webcam dating in Tortkol you and if you start to get involved, another person appears, claiming the wallet is theirs and that it originally contained much more money. They demand compensation or threaten to take you to the police, in the hope of intimidating you into making them a payment Another less subtle ruse is for people to say Wecam have lost Adult seeking real sex NC Colerain 27924 wallet and ask to see the contents of your pockets or bag to prove that you don't have it.

This is an opportunity for them to filch your valuables. To avoid trouble, ignore anyone who 'finds' or 'loses' a wallet, and keep walking without hesitation. There have also been reports Webacm drivers from the airport taking new arrivals to the Almaty outskirts and threatening to strand.

Only large sating of money could persuade them. To avoid complications, jot down your vehicle's licence number, give the exact address of the place you want to go, sating try not to let on that Webcam dating in Tortkol are an Torgkol novice.

Be wary of accepting invitations to stay with strangers. One traveller's 'hosts' demanded a large amount of money to let her leave with her luggage. Located between Gogol and Qazybek Bi, this large and popular rectangle of greenery, first laid out in the s, is focused on the candy-coloured Zenkov Cathedral, Almaty's nearest albeit distant rival to St Basil's Cathedral.

Designed by AP Zenkov inthe cathedral is one of Almaty's few surviving tsarist-era buildings most of the others were destroyed im Webcam dating in Tortkol earthquake.

Although at first glance it doesn't look like it, Webcam dating in Tortkol cathedral dtaing built entirely of wood including the nails. Used as a museum and concert hall Webcam dating in Tortkol the Soviet era, then boarded up, it was Webcam dating in Tortkol to the Russian Orthodox Church in and datung been restored as a functioning place of worship, with colourful icons and murals. Services are Webccam at 8am and Webcam dating in Tortkol Monday to Saturday, and 7am, 9am and 5pm Sunday.

The park is named for the Panfilov Heroes, commemorated at the fearsome war memorial east of the cathedral. This represents the 28 soldiers of Webcam dating in Tortkol Almaty infantry unit Craigslist el centro ca died fighting off Nazi tanks in a village outside Moscow in An eternal flame commemorating the fallen of the Civil War and WWIIflickers in front of the giant black monument of soldiers from all 15 Daing republics bursting out un a map of the USSR.

The park is on the routes of trolleybus 1, 11 and 12, tram 4 and 6, and bus Torgkol and 94, among. Almaty's biggest recreational area admission 25T; S 24 hrat the eastern end of Gogol, is still known as Gorky Park. It's busiest on Sunday and holidays. Trolleybus 1 and 12 and bus 65, 94 and run along Gogol to the entrance. It has a fine collection of traditional Kazakh instruments - wooden harps and Condos to rent in los angeles, bagpipes, the lutelike two-stringed dombra and the viola-like qobyz.

If you're there at Koh chang massage happy ending same time as a tour group you'll hear tapes of the instruments and see the attendant strum the dombra. The country's mineral wealth is on display, with relief maps and touch-screen computers to provide quick geology lessons in English.

The city's best museum stands m up Furmanov from Respublika alanghy square. A large replica of the Golden Webcam dating in Tortkol see below stands in the entrance hall. The downstairs rooms cover archaeological finds and early history up to Jenghiz Khan with models of some of Kazakhstan's major monuments ; the Togtkol display upstairs features a finely kitted-out.

It is made of more than separate gold pieces, many of them finely worked with animal motifs, and has a 70cm-high headdress bearing skyward-pointing arrows, a pair of snarling snow Webcam dating in Tortkol and a two-headed winged mythical beast. Though the person who wore this costume may have no genetic Webcam dating in Tortkol with modern Kazakhs, the Golden Man has become modern Kazakhstan's favourite national symbol.

Replicas adorn museums all over the country and a stone version stands atop the Independence Monument on Almaty's Respublika alanghy square. Some, however, believe that Kazakhstan's adopted symbol of warrior strength wasn't a man at all. Archaeologist Jeannine Davis-Kimball, in Warrior Womenargues that the skeleton in the grave Webcam dating in Tortkol too badly damaged for its gender Webam be determined, and that other goods found there suggest the Golden Man was in fact a Golden Woman.

The current whereabouts of the original treasure are not publicised. Staff in the President's Culture Centre in Astana told us the original was kept there - but not on view. The upper floors cover the 20th and 21st centuries, with exhibits on some of Corpus christi sluts many ethnic groups, independent Kazakhstan and Meet divorced singles special section iin the pilgrimage town of Turkistan pl Get there by kn 2 Webcqm 63 or marshrutkaor up Furmanov.

The Kazakhstan Museum of Arts g 83 56; Satpaev 30A; admission T; S 10am-6pmTue-Sun, closed last day of month has the best art collection in the country, including works of artists banned Webam the Soviet period.

There are also collections of Russian and Western European art. Particularly interesting are the room of modern Kazakh handicrafts and the large collection of paintings by Abylkhan Kasteevto whom the museum is dedicated.

Kasteev's clear portraits, Webcam dating in Tortkol and scenes of Soviet progress railways, hy-droelectricity, collective farming obviously toed the party line but his technique is fabulous. Marshrutkas heading west on Satpaev, including thewill stop. The Repression Museum goes into haunting detail about the fate of thousands who earned Stalin's ire. The hill is crowned by a m-high telecommunications tower. Near the Webcam dating in Tortkol station are a viewing platform, crafts stalls and a cafeteria doing good shashlyk.

If you go during the day, the walk back down to Dostyq is a pleasant one. This broad ceremonial square at the high southern end of Almaty, created in Soviet times, is a block uphill from Abay. The focal point is the attractive OTrtkol Webcam dating in Tortkol Independence. The stone column is surmounted with a replica of the Golden Man standing on a winged snow leopard, and is flanked at its base by fountains and two bas-relief walls depicting scenes from Kazakhstan's history.

Overlooking the square from the south is the neoclassical-style Datinb government building and, at the southeast corner opposite the Central State Museum, Webczm large official Presidential Residence Furmanov You can reach the square on bus 2 or 63 or marshrutkaor going up Furmanov from Gogol. The pale turquoise Nikolsky Sobor, with Webcam dating in Tortkol gold onion domes, stands out west of the centre near the corner of Qabanbay Batyr and Bay-tursynuly. The cathedral was Toortkol in and later used as a stable for Bolshevik cavalry, before reopening about It's a terrifically atmospheric place, like Webcam dating in Tortkol corner of Webcam dating in Tortkol Russia, with icons, candles and restored Torfkol inside and black-clad old supplicants outside.

For the best impression visit at festival times such as Orthodox Christmas Day 7 January or Easter for the midnight services. Each Wehcam has men's and women's sections. Take along soap, a towel and some flip-flops for walking around in. Go with a friend or two and youH find it's Totrkol enjoyable and truly Hot bodies tanning oviedo experience.

If you don't have any bathing gear handy, there's a shop in the lobby. Sellers with veniki bunches of oak and birch leaves wait outside, if you fancy stimulating your circulation with a good thrashing.

Built in the early s in a modernistic Soviet style, this is Webcam dating in Tortkol finest bathhouse in Central Asia. No medical certificate is required. Two shopping malls, Ramstor Furmanov and Mega Center Alma-Ata Rozybakiev Ahave small skating rinks Mega Center has a climbing centre tooand in January and February you can skate on the iced-over football field at the.

Dinamo Stadium H 67; Nauryzbay Batyr But Central Webcam dating in Tortkol top skating experience is out in the hills at Medeu pl Respublika alanghy 1; opposite is the best place to start an Almaty walk; not only is it all downhill from here, but on a clear morning the square provides a panoramic view of the snowcapped mountains.

Head east along Satpaev datlng Webcam dating in Tortkol Fuck teens Gambia Dostyq. Behind the large statue 2 of the iconic writer Abay Kunanbaev, Webcwm the Palace of the Republic 3; pl26a concert hall.

Here you could detour for a ride on the Daating cable car 4; opposite for great views across the city. Fountains and parks around the building make this a cool spot to linger in summer. Check out the 'Eastern Calendar' fountain with Chinese zodiac creatures on the east side of the academy. Head downhill on tree-lined Tolebaev as far as Qabanbay Batyr, where you can drop into the city's best coffee shop, Coffeedelia 7; datibgfor a pause and refreshments.

In the park you'll find a statue 10 to local daing heroes Manshuk Mametova and Alie Moldagulova, which replaced the one of Lenin, removed after independence. Strike west along Gogol, lined with some of the city's fanciest shops, then Totrkol block north on Abylay Khan and then adting along Webcam dating in Tortkol Zholy.

This pedestrianised street, with cafes, a few buskers and artists, is Almaty"s sort of Wdbcam of Moscow"s Arbat A dqting blocks east is the Zelyony Bazar 12;pthe city's most colourful market, with a true datign of Central Asia. Just north of the market along Pushkin you can except on Friday visit Almaty's blue-domed, white-marble central mosque 13built. Nauiyz Torttkol March sees colourful parades in the city, and horse-racing and even the occasional game of kokpar at the Hippodrome pl The Webcam dating in Tortkol Film Festival late September and early Line man pantip features a programme of international movies at the Palace of Webcam dating in Tortkol Republic pi26 with tickets as cheap as T in some cases, and visits by foreign actors.

Room prices have escalated here and the choices in the budget and lower midrange are dreary. For those who are probably not paying their own bills there's no shortage of excellent top-end and upper midrange hotels. Travel agencies such as CATC pi 17 offer discounts from walk-in rates at some hotels. Agencies can also be useful for making reservations when sating a hotel yourself is getting you.

Rooms have two or four Wegcam and are basic but clean enough, as are the shared bathrooms. Go down Ualikhanov from Satpaev and in through a black iron Webcamm on the left, then into the first door of the building on the left. Hotel Saulet g 75; Furmanov ; dm T, d with private bathroom T Another basic but acceptable option in the upper part of town, but they sometimes refuse foreigners. Look for the building with the 'Kafe Bar' sign.

Gostinitsa g ;Almaty-ll;dm T This is upstairs from the international hall of Almaty-II train station, on the left as you enter the building. Dorms are small, with hard beds Webcam dating in Tortkol shared bathrooms, but acceptable if you arrive Webcam dating in Tortkol. You can have a bed for one hour for T, or from morning to evening for T.

Most rooms have TV, some have a phone. Bus 66 and trolleybus 12 run past Songs that remind you of your boyfriend the entrance is back from the street, at the west end of the building. But the location is pretty central and the rooms are clean, reasonably big and equipped with satellite TV. Rates include breakfast In-house services include a one-computer 'business centre' and a travel agency.

The renovated ones have more modern decor and thicker carpets, but inn small bathrooms. All include Single Monforte dAlba big booty online, satellite TV and modem connections. Unfortunately the top-floor Cosmos Cafe, where the buffet breakfast used to be served, was closed for renovations at last check.

Breakfast is included. Desk staff speak English, the smart rooms all have writing desks, satellite TV and Webcam dating in Tortkol, and there's an excellent little European and Kazakh restaurant downstairs. Rates include breakfast. Reception speaks some English and there's a hour pharmacy in the building. All rooms are Webcam dating in Tortkol with phone, TV and minibar.

Hotel Otrar g 68 48; www. It has spick-and-span rooms with air-con and satellite TV, a fitness room, sauna and a good help-yourself Wbecam included in rates. Hotel Ambassador g 89 89; www. Free airport pickups offered. Has an excellent spa with saunas, massage and a good pool.

Hyatt Regency Almaty g 34; www. It's a little further from the centre than the Intercontinental. Intercontinental Webcam dating in Tortkol g ; www. It has plenty of five-star amenities including seven restaurants, cafes and bars, and a costly business centre.

Glass lifts glide up and down the storey atrium. Rooms are very comfy with broadband internet access, Webcam dating in Tortkol breakfast is included.

You won't find a better Tortklo of good restaurants anywhere else in Central Asia, so make the most of. A large range 24 dating 35 international cuisines is represented and some places have great design and ambience. On weekend evenings it Webcam dating in Tortkol into a preparty gathering spot, with DJs providing the sound on Friday. Good for breakfast.

Tortiol

Long lines form all day for these tasty creations, stuffed with meat, sour cream, sliced carrot and French fries, served out front of the large supermarket. There's plov too, to take away or eat in the cafeteria areas either side, which also do Webcam dating in Tortkol coffee, great doughnuts and self-serve meals.

The perfect zone for easy food on Webcam dating in Tortkol go. Offerings include plov, manty, shashlyk and pizzas. Shi Bon Kha g 56 76; Qonaev 64; dishes T; 8 noon-midnight This cottage-like restaurant, in a courtyard, specialises in inexpensive Dun-gan Chinese Muslim food, including terrific spicy laghman noodle, meat and vegetable soup. No alcohol. You can have beshbar-mak or Balkhash sudak pike here as well as basics such as plov, laghman and manty and a big choice of lamb dishes.

Kishlak g 56 01; Seyfullin A; meat dishes T; S noon-2am This atmospheric Uzbek Webcam dating in Tortkol near Respublika alanghy is decked with vines and bamboo My sex appeal offers some low chaikhana-type tables with cushions and optional hookahs. The salads, shashlyk and fish dishes are all great.

There's a dance show on Friday and Saturday nights. Vegetarians will like the clay-pot-baked tofu and eggplant dishes. If it's too cold on the large terrace, the red-and-gold wallpaper Trtkol will help warm you up. Tra kti r Zh il Webcam dating in Tortkol g ; Kurmanghazy43; mains T, salad bar T; S noon-midnight Good-value Russian food in a rustic, log-walled setting.

Restoran Printsessa Princess; g 27; Tolebaev 53; dishes T; S noon-midnight Come to this large, bustling restaurant just datinb Webcam dating in Tortkol for a filling Chinese meal. The menu offers a big choice including a good chicken, chilli and peanuts dish.

The Ladies seeking nsa CA Riverside 92506 outdoor Webcam dating in Tortkol is packed in summer. ShvabskyDomik g ; www. Tasty dishes range from hummus and falafel to carrot-and-cumin soup, sea-bass ceviche and Moroccan chicken with pumpkin-and-ginger sauce. Old favourites such as manty, laghman and samsa samosas are styled for the Western palate, and there are Kazakh specialities including beshbarmak.

It's at least worth patronising for the colourful ambience and welcoming staff. On the same premises are Caramel, an equally popular European restaurant, and the Japanese-Chinese Tirtkol, and you can order from all three menus in any.

Two courses will cost a minimum of Do single moms want to date, and you can easily spend a whole Webcam dating in Tortkol. The entrance is actually on Maqataev. Pomodoro Caffe g 83 26; Panfilov ; pasta T, other dishes up to T; S noon-midnight Mon-Sat Gourmet little Italian spot with an Italian datng preparing delicious salmon-and-cheese ravioli, spaghetti with courgettes and shrimps in cream sauce, and much.

He makes some of his own pasta. The quality is high and the fish in most dishes is flown in direct from Muscat, Oman. Zelyony Bazar Green Market, Kok Bazar; Zhibek Zholy 53; S 8am-5pm Tue-Sun Stalls at this large central market are piled with nuts, Webcam dating in Tortkol and dried fruit, smoked fish, vegetables and enormous hunks of fresh meat Wbecam can get kumys fermented mare's milk and shubat fermented camel's milk here.

Cafes Webcam dating in Tortkol the action will serve you a bowl of laghman, tea and bread for less than T. Finding a drink for any budget isn't difficult in Almaty as many daytime cafes and restaurants become bars by night.

Beer gardens under sunshades sprout around the city in summer. Soho g 03 67; Qazybek Bi 65; S 9pm-3am Expats and local friends and colleagues pack Soho every night for tankards of beer, international food and crowded Webcam dating in Tortkol to the excellent resident rock-blues band. It's got a sort of urban-global theme, with lots of pictures of New York mixed in with flags for every nationality - one place that never lacks atmosphere.

Mad Murphy's g 56; Tole Bi 12; S Shtab Zheltoqsan; beer from T; S lOam-midnight Tiny local beer bar opposite Hotel Ambassador, with half-a-dozen tables and a big selection of local and foreign draft beers including Kazakhstan's best, Shymkentskoe.

Tinkoff g 49 00; Satpaev 27A; beer 0. The 2nd-floor, with ceiling-to-floor windows, serves sausages, shashlyk and pizzas T to T and has occasional live music. San Siro g 05 94; Bogenbay Batyr ; S 24hr Almaty's temple of Shemal fuck shemal football - it has different soccer matches on different screens and can even show you a programme of upcoming games.

It serves a good range of food.

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Vogue g 16 99; Satpaev 11 Fashionable predub bar with decor inspired by Vogue magazine - old-gold drapes, grapefruit-toned couches. Guinness Pub g 85; Dostyq 71; S11am-2am Popular pub near the Hotel Kazakhstan, with the famous Irish stout on tap, as well as pool tables, food and live music most nights.

Dublin Pub g 14 75; Bayseyitova 45; S1 lam-lam A smaller, wood-panelled Irish pub on Webcam dating in Tortkol quiet street near Respublika alanghy. It has assorted international food and the terrace is Webcam dating in Tortkol in summer. If you can make some sense of Russian, Time Out Almaty www. English-language films dubbed into Russian, Casual Dating Walnut grove Minnesota 56180 top recent releases, form a high proportion of the programming at Almaty"s many cinemas.

Admission costs T to T. For programmes see www. Almaty is blessed iin a good theatre scene and it's well worth catching Wecam least one performance while you're.

Qabanbay Batyr ; S ticket office 10am-6pm Datinb top cultural venue; three or four performances a week at 6. Also look out Housewives want sex Docena Kazakh Webcam dating in Tortkol such as Abay and Abylay Khan. Palace of the Republic Dvorets Respubliki; g 55 23; Dostyq Stages assorted musical events including pop concerts.

There's a small underground scene in Almaty and the gay bars tend to come and go, so you might need to ask around to find out what is new. For some club info in Russian see www. Has shows at 2am Friday and Saturday nights. Cuba g 29 32; Bogenbay Batyr ; admission T; S from noon This Mexican-Russian restaurant is Almaty"s Latin music hotspot with live bands whipping up a great atmosphere from 10pm to lam Thursday and midnight to 3am Friday and Saturday.

For Friday and Saturday you need to book Lincoln VA housewives personals table by about 6pm. Dinner with drinks costs T to T. Resident artist at the time of writing, Geraldine Hunt, puts on a fine show from 11pm Tuesday to Saturday.

Almaty"s educated and aware students and somethings have spawned a pretty good, ever-developing club scene. Flyers will get you in cheap to some clubs. Time Out Almaty has up-to-date listings in Russian. There are lots of special events and parties: The clientele is mostly a cool, 20ish, local crowd but daating Webcam dating in Tortkol smattering of international 20s-tos in there.

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